**Kindergarten - 1st Grade**Counting Collections

Materials:

- A variety of different objects

- Buckets/containers to hold objects

- Paper

- Pencils

- Crayons/markers/colored pencils

Preparation:

Organize the materials into different containers and take note of how many objects are in each container. For consistency, try and group the same or similar objects in the same containers.

Purpose: Children will be able to count the amount of items in each container and write down that amount. Then, children will be able to compare and contrast the amounts in the containers and create an image to show their findings.

Possible Interaction:

Adult: I have X amount of containers with different amounts of objects in each container. I need your help figuring out how many objects are in each container. Your job is to count each object and write down the number of objects in each container. You can write down the number on a piece of paper so that we can remember it later.

Child:

*Counts objects in each container and writes down the amount in each container.*

Adult: Now that you're done, you're going to tell me how many objects were in each container.

Child:

*Reads off how many objects were in each container.*(Note: if the child has not stated the correct number for a bucket, that is okay. You can ask them to recount and try again, or move on to the next portion of the activity.)

Adult: Great job! I want to be able to quickly see how many objects were in each container, so I think that we should create a picture to show how many items were in each. (Older children can create a graph if desired, but drawing a picture with the correct amount of items in each container is sufficient. Children can be creative and represent their findings in whichever way they feel most comfortable!)

Child:

*Creates image.*

Adult: (Possible questions) Which container had the most items? Which had the least? How many more items did this container have than that container? Did this container have more or less items than that container?

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.CC.A.3

Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.CC.B.4

Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.CC.C.6

Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies.1

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.NBT.B.3

Compare two two-digit numbers based on meanings of the tens and ones digits, recording the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, and <.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.MD.C.4

Organize, represent, and interpret data with up to three categories; ask and answer questions about the total number of data points, how many in each category, and how many more or less are in one category than in another.

Is it Equal?

Materials:

- Materials to count (coins, beans, pieces of paper, etc.)

- Piece of paper with an equals sign in the middle

- Small piece of paper with an addition sign (optional)

- Small piece of paper with a subtraction sign (optional)

Preparation:

Split the paper in half down the middle by folding/drawing a line and draw an equals sign in the center. The child should have enough room to place on amount of something on one side and another amount of something on the other side. Gather counting materials.

Purpose:

Children will demonstrate their knowledge of the equals sign and what it means for two things to be equal/the same. Children can practice counting skills and compare/contrast two amounts or numbers.

Possible Interaction:

Adult: Tell me what you know about the word "equal."

Child:

Child:

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.1

Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings1, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.2

Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.5

Fluently add and subtract within 5.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.C.6

Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.7

Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 - 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.

Materials:

- Materials to count (coins, beans, pieces of paper, etc.)

- Piece of paper with an equals sign in the middle

- Small piece of paper with an addition sign (optional)

- Small piece of paper with a subtraction sign (optional)

Preparation:

Split the paper in half down the middle by folding/drawing a line and draw an equals sign in the center. The child should have enough room to place on amount of something on one side and another amount of something on the other side. Gather counting materials.

Purpose:

Children will demonstrate their knowledge of the equals sign and what it means for two things to be equal/the same. Children can practice counting skills and compare/contrast two amounts or numbers.

Possible Interaction:

Adult: Tell me what you know about the word "equal."

Child:

*Shares their knowledge.*

Adult: We're going to be seeing if these two different groups of items are equal or not.*The adult places a certain amount of items on one side of the paper and either the same or different amount of items on the other side of the paper.*Are these two sides equal?Child:

*Counts the items on both sides and determines whether or not the sides are equal or not.*

Adult:*Continues process with other numbers and amounts. If child is confident in addition and/or subtraction, the adult can place one amount of counters on one side of the paper (i.e., 8) and one amount of counters on the other side separated by either the addition or subtraction sign (i.e., 5 + 3) The child can decide whether or not the sides are equal based on the operations. The child can also create their own number sentences using the materials available.*Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.1

Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings1, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.2

Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.OA.A.5

Fluently add and subtract within 5.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.C.6

Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use strategies such as counting on; making ten (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a ten (e.g., 13 - 4 = 13 - 3 - 1 = 10 - 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 - 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.OA.D.7

Understand the meaning of the equal sign, and determine if equations involving addition and subtraction are true or false. For example, which of the following equations are true and which are false? 6 = 6, 7 = 8 - 1, 5 + 2 = 2 + 5, 4 + 1 = 5 + 2.

From 2D to 3D

Materials:

- Printable 3D shape templates (a free pack is available here: https://mathgeekmama.com/product/3d-shape-nets-printable-pack/)

(if no printer is available, many can be drawn on paper by hand)

- Tape

Preparation:

Print out 3D shape templates. The shapes can be cut out prior to starting, or the child can cut them out themselves.

Possible Interaction:

Adult: I have some pieces of paper here that we're going to turn into 3D shapes. What does it mean to make something "3D?" Before we make them 3D, I want you guess what shape it will turn into. What 2D shapes do you see on this template?

Child:

Adult: What shapes have you created?

Child:

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.A.3

Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid").

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.B.4

Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/"corners") and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.B.5

Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.G.A.2

Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1

Materials:

- Printable 3D shape templates (a free pack is available here: https://mathgeekmama.com/product/3d-shape-nets-printable-pack/)

(if no printer is available, many can be drawn on paper by hand)

- Tape

Preparation:

Print out 3D shape templates. The shapes can be cut out prior to starting, or the child can cut them out themselves.

Possible Interaction:

Adult: I have some pieces of paper here that we're going to turn into 3D shapes. What does it mean to make something "3D?" Before we make them 3D, I want you guess what shape it will turn into. What 2D shapes do you see on this template?

Child:

*Guesses which shapes will be formed from which templates.**Works independently or with an adult to create the shapes. Seals shapes shut with tape.*Adult: What shapes have you created?

Child:

*Shares findings with adult. If child calls a cube a "square," the adult and child can engage in a conversation about how 3D and 2D shapes have different names. The child can experiment with joining shapes together to create new shapes.*Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.A.3

Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, "flat") or three-dimensional ("solid").

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.B.4

Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/"corners") and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.K.G.B.5

Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.1.G.A.2

Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.1

**2nd Grade - 3rd Grade**Finding Fractions

Materials:

- Paper

- Ruler

- Scissors

Purpose:

Introduce children to fractions and offer a review of how fractions can make up a whole.

Preparation:

On various pieces of paper, use a ruler to (or equally fold) mark various portions of the paper. This could be one mark, right in the middle of the paper or eight equal marks. One you have decided how many portions you will make out of the piece of paper, that determines what your denominator will be.

Possible Interactions:

Adult: *holding full piece of paper* How many pieces of paper do I have?

Child: One

Adult: *cuts piece of paper along the marks made previously* How many do I have now?

Child: X amount of pieces of paper

Adult: *holds up a few of the pieces, but not all* How many do I have now?

Child: X amount of pieces of paper

Adult: So I have X out of Y pieces of paper?

Child: Yes, you have X/Y of a piece of paper in your hand.

Adult: How many more pieces of paper do I need to make the paper whole again?

Tips:

Using many different pieces of paper with different numbers of cuts will help your child work with different fractions and amounts. For more of a challenge, you can ask your students more questions, such as: Can you simply that fraction? What would that number look like on paper? How do you know it is only X/Y amounts of paper?

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.NF.A.3

Explain equivalence of fractions in special cases, and compare fractions by reasoning about their size.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.NF.A.3.A

Understand two fractions as equivalent (equal) if they are the same size, or the same point on a number line.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.NF.A.3.C

Express whole numbers as fractions, and recognize fractions that are equivalent to whole numbers. Examples: Express 3 in the form 3 = 3/1; recognize that 6/1 = 6; locate 4/4 and 1 at the same point of a number line diagram.

Two by Two

Materials:

- Various household objects of your choosing (coins, pens, pencils, crayons, clothespins, candy pieces, buttons, disks, crackers, straws, etc.) *only up to 20 in each group*

Purpose:

Understand the difference between even and odd numbers. Helps childrens' multiplication skills.

Preparation:

Group together various household items of your choosing. Try to keep similar items together or keep sizes relatively the same. Encourage your child to group the items into sets of two until they have 0 or 1 left over. If they do not have any left over, there is an even amount of items. If they have one left over, there is an odd number of items.

Possible Interaction:

Adult: Do I have an even or an odd number of items in this group?

Child: Hmmmm.

Adult: How about you group them in sets or two.

Child: *separates items into sets of two*

Adult: Do you have any left over?

Child: No.

Adult: So do you have an even or an odd number?

Child: Even!

OR

Adult: Do you have any left over?

Child: Yes, I have one.

Adult: So do you have an even or an odd number of items?

Child: Odd!

Have your child write an equation (2 x Y = Z) in order to find the total amount of items in each group without counting each item.

*repeat with various different amounts of items in each group*

Standard:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.OA.C.3

Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

Materials:

- Various household objects of your choosing (coins, pens, pencils, crayons, clothespins, candy pieces, buttons, disks, crackers, straws, etc.) *only up to 20 in each group*

Purpose:

Understand the difference between even and odd numbers. Helps childrens' multiplication skills.

Preparation:

Group together various household items of your choosing. Try to keep similar items together or keep sizes relatively the same. Encourage your child to group the items into sets of two until they have 0 or 1 left over. If they do not have any left over, there is an even amount of items. If they have one left over, there is an odd number of items.

Possible Interaction:

Adult: Do I have an even or an odd number of items in this group?

Child: Hmmmm.

Adult: How about you group them in sets or two.

Child: *separates items into sets of two*

Adult: Do you have any left over?

Child: No.

Adult: So do you have an even or an odd number?

Child: Even!

OR

Adult: Do you have any left over?

Child: Yes, I have one.

Adult: So do you have an even or an odd number of items?

Child: Odd!

Have your child write an equation (2 x Y = Z) in order to find the total amount of items in each group without counting each item.

*repeat with various different amounts of items in each group*

Standard:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.OA.C.3

Determine whether a group of objects (up to 20) has an odd or even number of members, e.g., by pairing objects or counting them by 2s; write an equation to express an even number as a sum of two equal addends.

Number Lines

Materials:

- Pieces of Paper

- Tape

- Straight Edge

- Measurement Tool (ruler, yard stick, etc)

- Various items to measure (within 12 inches)

Purpose:

To help children understand measurements and see them on a number line while working on fractions.

Preparation:

Create a large number line for your child. You can tape pieces of paper together to make it longer. Place the number line in the middle of the paper so your child has room to mark and write the number close to the line. Evenly mark your number line, numbered 1 through 12. Give your child a ruler and different items to measure.

Possible Interactions:

Adult: What do you think the measurement of this item will be? How many inches?

Child: X inches.

Adult: What is the actual measurement of that item?

Child: *measures item with ruler* X Y/Z inches

Adult: Can you plot that number on this number line for me?

Child: *plots number*

Adult: Where on the number line is that placed?

Child: Between B and C.

Adult: Why is it there?

Child: It is bigger than B but smaller than C. But it is closer to B.

*repeat with various items within 12 inches*

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.A.1

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.A.3

Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.9

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.NF.A.2

Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

Materials:

- Pieces of Paper

- Tape

- Straight Edge

- Measurement Tool (ruler, yard stick, etc)

- Various items to measure (within 12 inches)

Purpose:

To help children understand measurements and see them on a number line while working on fractions.

Preparation:

Create a large number line for your child. You can tape pieces of paper together to make it longer. Place the number line in the middle of the paper so your child has room to mark and write the number close to the line. Evenly mark your number line, numbered 1 through 12. Give your child a ruler and different items to measure.

Possible Interactions:

Adult: What do you think the measurement of this item will be? How many inches?

Child: X inches.

Adult: What is the actual measurement of that item?

Child: *measures item with ruler* X Y/Z inches

Adult: Can you plot that number on this number line for me?

Child: *plots number*

Adult: Where on the number line is that placed?

Child: Between B and C.

Adult: Why is it there?

Child: It is bigger than B but smaller than C. But it is closer to B.

*repeat with various items within 12 inches*

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.A.1

Measure the length of an object by selecting and using appropriate tools such as rulers, yardsticks, meter sticks, and measuring tapes.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.A.3

Estimate lengths using units of inches, feet, centimeters, and meters.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.2.MD.D.9

Generate measurement data by measuring lengths of several objects to the nearest whole unit, or by making repeated measurements of the same object. Show the measurements by making a line plot, where the horizontal scale is marked off in whole-number units.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.3.NF.A.2

Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram.

__Understanding Decimal Place Value__

**4th Grade - 5th Grade**

Materials: - 100’s grid

- Colored pencil

- Pencil

Purpose: Students will explore and compare decimal place value

Preparation:

Print out a 100’s grid

Possible Interaction:

Adult: How many small boxes make up the whole grid?

Student: 100

Adult: Now can you shade in one whole row or column? What does the shaded part represent?

Student: One tenth of a whole

Adult: What are different ways to write this?

Student: 1/10, 0.1, one-tenth

Do this again but shade in 1 box, then ask if 0.1 is greater or 0.01? How much greater?

Standard:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NBT.A.3

Read, write, and compare decimals to thousandths.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NBT.A.3.B

Compare two decimals to thousandths based on meanings of the digits in each place, using >, =, and < symbols to record the results of comparisons.

Baking with Fractions

Materials: - A recipe that makes multiple servings

- Paper

- Pencil

- Optional: ingredients to bake the recipe

Purpose: Children will practice dividing whole numbers or fractions by 2.

Possible interaction:

Adult: This recipe makes 6 servings, but we only need to make 3! What do we have to do?

Child: Make less

Adult: OK. The recipe calls for 2 cups of flour. How many cups do we need?

Child: 1.

Adult: Alright. Now it says we need ½ a cup of sugar. How much do we need?

Child: ¼.

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NF.B.3

Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NF.B.7.A

Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NF.B.7.C

Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Materials: - A recipe that makes multiple servings

- Paper

- Pencil

- Optional: ingredients to bake the recipe

Purpose: Children will practice dividing whole numbers or fractions by 2.

Possible interaction:

Adult: This recipe makes 6 servings, but we only need to make 3! What do we have to do?

Child: Make less

Adult: OK. The recipe calls for 2 cups of flour. How many cups do we need?

Child: 1.

Adult: Alright. Now it says we need ½ a cup of sugar. How much do we need?

Child: ¼.

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NF.B.3

Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a ÷ b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NF.B.7.A

Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, and compute such quotients.

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.5.NF.B.7.C

Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

Measuring

Materials:

- Measuring tape

- Paper

- Pencil

Purpose:

Students will be able to measure, and apply the formulas for area and perimeter by measuring lengths of rooms around the house

Possible Interaction:

Adult: Let’s measure the lengths of these walls in this room.

Child:

Adult: How would we be able to find the total number of square feet in this room?

Child: Multiply the length and width.

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.A.3

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.

Materials:

- Measuring tape

- Paper

- Pencil

Purpose:

Students will be able to measure, and apply the formulas for area and perimeter by measuring lengths of rooms around the house

Possible Interaction:

Adult: Let’s measure the lengths of these walls in this room.

Child:

*finds measurements and writes them down on a piece of paper*Adult: How would we be able to find the total number of square feet in this room?

Child: Multiply the length and width.

Standards:

CCSS.MATH.CONTENT.4.MD.A.3

Apply the area and perimeter formulas for rectangles in real world and mathematical problems.